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All people are necessarily descended from antiquity, but for most, records of their ancestry do not exist that far back. The British royal family is one of the few families for whom ancestry can be traced to many notable lineages of antiquity. They can be traced from Saxon, Scottish (Stuart dynasty), Welsh (Tudor dynasty), Irish, German (Hanover and Windsor), French (Norman and Angevin), Russian, Frank and perhaps even Byzantine lineages.
Saxon and Scottish descent
Descent from the Franks
George I of Great Britain had descended, through both of his parents, from Rollo, the Viking founder of the ducal lineage of Normandy. Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria, had a descent from King Henry II of England through his daughter Matilda.
Consort of English and British Queens Family Tree
|Henry II of England|
|John, King of England||Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony|
|Henry III of England||Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine|
|Edward I of England||Agnes of the Palatinate|
|Joan of Acre||Edward II of England||Louis II, Duke of Bavaria|
|Margaret de Clare||Edward III of England||Agnes of Bavaria, Margravine of Brandenburg-Stendal||Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Margaret de Audley, 2nd Baroness Audley||John of Gaunt||Sophia of Brandenburg-Stendal||Matilda of Bavaria, Margravine of Meissen|
|Katherine de Stafford||Catherine of Lancaster||John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset||Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg||Frederick III, Landgrave of Thuringia|
|John Sutton IV||John II of Castile||John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset||Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg||Frederick I, Elector of Saxony|
|John Sutton V||Isabella I of Castile||Lady Margaret Beaufort||Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg||Frederick II, Elector of Saxony|
|John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley||Joanna of Castile||Henry VII of England||Otto V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg||Ernest, Elector of Saxony|
|Sir John Dudley of Atherington||Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor||Margaret Tudor||Henry the Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg||Ernest, Elector of Saxony|
|Edmund Dudley||Philip II of Spain|
married Mary I of England
|James V of Scotland||Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg||John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony|
|John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland||Mary, Queen of Scots||William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg||John William, Duke of Saxe-Weimar|
|Lord Guildford Dudley|
married Lady Jane Grey
|James VI and I||George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg||Johann II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar|
|Charles I of England||Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg||Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha|
|Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange||Prince George of Denmark|
married Anne, Queen of Great Britain
|John Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld|
|William III of England|
married Mary II of England
|Francis Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld|
|Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld|
|Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld|
|Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha|
|Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha|
married Queen Victoria
|Princess Alice of the United Kingdom|
|Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine|
|Princess Alice of Battenberg|
|Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark|
married Elizabeth II
Diana Spencer and Catherine Middleton
One established connection is given below, starting with Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelos (for his descent, see Descent from antiquity#Caucasian route).
|Isaac II Angelos, Byzantine Emperor (1156–1204)||Herina (d. c. 1185)|
|Irene Angelina (c. 1181-1208)||Philip of Swabia, King of the Germans (1177–1208)|
|Marie of Swabia (1201–1235)||Henry II, Duke of Brabant (1207–1248)||Elisabeth of Swabia (1203–1235)||Ferdinand III of Castile (1199–1252)|
|Henry III, Duke of Brabant (c. 1230-1261)||Adelaide of Burgundy (c. 1233-1273)||Alfonso X of Castile (1221–1284)||Violant of Aragon (1236–1301)|
|Marie of Brabant (1254–1321)||Philip III of France (1245–1285)||Sancho IV of Castile (1258–1295)||María de Molina (c. 1265-1321)|
|Margaret of France (c. 1279-1318)||Edward I of England (1239–1307)||Ferdinand IV of Castile (1285–1312)||Constance of Portugal (1290–1313)|
|Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (1301–1330)||Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell (c. 1297-1349)||Alfonso XI of Castile (1311–1350)||Maria of Portugal (1313–1357)|
|Joan, 4th Countess of Kent (1328–1385)||Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent (c. 1314-1360)||Peter of Castile (1334–1369)||María de Padilla (1334–1361)|
|Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (1350–1397)||Alice FitzAlan (1350–1416)||Isabella of Castile (c. 1355-1392)||Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (1341–1402)||Constance of Castile (1354–1394)||John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (1340–1399)|
|Margaret Holland (1385–1439)||John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)||Alianore Holland (1373–1405)||Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1374–1398)||Catherine of Lancaster (1373–1418)||Henry III of Castile (1379–1406)|
|John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset (1403–1444)||Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso (1405–1482)||Anne de Mortimer (1390–1411)||Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. 1375-1415)||John II of Castile (1405–1454)||Isabella of Portugal (1428–1496)|
|Margaret Beaufort (1441/43-1509)||Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (1430–1456)||Richard Plantagenêt, 3rd Duke of York (1411–1460)||Cecily Neville (c. 1415-1495)||Isabella I of Castile (1451–1504)||Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452–1516)|
|Edward IV (1442–1483)||Elizabeth Woodville (1437–1492)||Joanna of Castile (1479–1555)||Philip I of Castile (1478–1506)|
|Henry VII (1457–1509)||Elizabeth of York (1466–1503)||Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503–1564)||Anne of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547)|
|Margaret Tudor (1489–1541)||James IV of Scotland (1473–1513)||Joanna of Austria (1547–1578)||Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1541–1587)|
|James V of Scotland (1512–1542)||Mary of Guise (1515–1560)||Marie de' Medici (1575–1642)||Henry IV of France (1553–1610)|
|Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–1587)||Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, 1st Duke of Albany (1545–1567)|
|James I of England (1566–1625)||Anne of Denmark (1574–1619)|
|Elizabeth of Bohemia (1596–1662)||Frederick V, Elector Palatine (1596–1632)||Charles I of England (1600–1649)||Henrietta Maria of France (1609–1669)|
|Charles II of England (1630–1685)||Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth (1649–1734)|
|Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond (1672–1723)||Anne Brudenell (1671–1722)|
|Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond (1701–1750)||Sarah Cadogan (1705–1751)|
|Lord George Lennox (1737–1805)||Louisa Kerr (1738–1830)|
|11 generations||Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond (1764–1819)||Charlotte Gordon (1768–1842)|
|Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond (1791–1860)||Caroline Paget (1796–1874)|
|Cecilia Gordon-Lennox (1838–1910)||Charles Bingham, 4th Earl of Lucan (1830–1914)|
|Rosalind Bingham (1869–1958)||James Hamilton, 3rd Duke of Abercorn (1869–1953)|
|Cynthia Hamilton (1897–1972)||Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer (1892–1975)|
|John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer (1924–1992)||Frances Ruth Roche (1936–2004)|
|Charles, Prince of Wales (born 1948)||Diana Spencer (1961–1997)|
Other possible connections are as under:
- As seen from the first chart (detailed), Prince Philip descends from the Romanov dynasty of Russia through his paternal grandmother. The first Romanov Tsar's mother, Xenia Shestova, was possibly sired by Ivan the Terrible, who, in turn, descended from Sophia Palaiologina, granddaughter of Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos.
- Kalinikia (w/o Radu I of Wallachia, see below), possible ancestress of Francis, Duke of Teck [shown in the first chart (detailed)], also had a Byzantine descent.
- Both Charles and Diana are also direct descendants of first Polish king Mieszko I, through Anne of Denmark, Christian I of Denmark, who in turn descend from Estrid Svendsdatter, sister of Canute the Great and daughter of Sweyn Forkbeard and Sigrid the Haughty, Mieszko I's daughter.
- Rosalind Bingham and Sarah Ferguson descended from King Charles II of England through his mistress, Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth.
Connections are also traced by enthusiasts to Arabic—Moorish and even Biblical lineages.Script error: No such module "Unsubst". (For Biblical lineage, see List of legendary kings of Britain#Tea Tephi).
- A purported connection from Emperor Suzong of Tang dynasty of China enters the British line through Mary of Guise (shown in the first chart). The connection goes through the emperor's daughter Ninguo (w/o Bayanchur Khan, Khagan of Uyghur), Bavand Dynasty of Tabaristan, royalty of Vaspurakan Kingdom (descent of this family from the Bavandis and link between two branches of this family, as required for this connection, are unestablished), the Lampron Hethumids (starting with Gaday Arcruni, w/o Oshin of Lampron), Lusignan dynasty of Cyprus and Margaret of Savoy, niece-in-law of Jacquetta of Luxembourg (shown in the Frank lineage chart above).
- A connection from Muhammad, entering the British line through Infanta Isabella of Castile (shown in the first chart), has been endorsed by Burke's PeerageScript error: No such module "Unsubst". The connection hinges on Zaida of Seville, who, for this connection to be true, needs to be daughter, wife and mother, respectively, of King Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad of Seville, King Alfonso VI of León and Castile and Sancha Alfónsez (wife of Rodrigo González de Lara). This line goes through Maria of Portugal (shown under Byzantine connection above). Other lines of descent from Muhammad go through María de Padilla (shown under Byzantine connection above), Isabella of Barcelos (shown under Ancestry of Diana Spencer and Catherine Middleton above) and the wife of Anselm Franz, 2nd Prince of Thurn and Taxis (father-in-law of Charles Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, patrilineal ancestor of Mary of Teck).
- A descent from Genghis Khan was proposed by Iain Moncreiffe in Royal Highness that requires descent of Thocomerius, Voivode of Wallachia, from Jöchi (presuming parentage from Mengu-Timur, possibly identifying Thocomerius with Toqta, Khan of the Blue Horde or one of his brothers), which is controversial. However, further on, this connection leads to Francis, Duke of Teck (shown in the first chart) through the half-brother of Dracula as proposed by Moncreiffe and Gerald Paget. This connection moves through Radu I of Wallachia. Another line through his sister Elisaveta (w/o Władysław Opolczyk, Duke of Opole), as proposed by William Addams Reitwiesner leads to Magdalene of Brandenburg (shown in the Viking lineage chart above). The Paget-Moncreiffe line has several uncertainties in between Mircea the Shepherd and Baroness Ágnes Kendeffy de Malmoviz (great-grandmother of Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde). (also see Descent from Genghis Khan#Basaraba). However, the lineage proposed by Reitwiesner is easily verifiable, as under:
|Basarab I, Voivode of Wallachia||Anna|
|Nicholas Alexander||Maria Lackfi|
|Elisaveta||Władysław II Opolczyk, Duke of Opole||Radu I||Kalinikia|
|Katharina||Henry VIII the Sparrow, Duke of Żagań–Głogów||Mircea I the Elder||Maria Tolmay|
|Jan I, Duke of Żagań||Scholastica of Saxony||Vlad II Dracul||Princess (Cneajna) Vasilissa|
|Anna of Żagań||Albrecht VIII, Count of Lindau-Ruppin||Vlad III (Dracula)|
|Anna of Lindau-Ruppin||George I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau|
|Ernest I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau||Margarete of Münsterberg-Oels|
|John V, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst||Margaret of Brandenburg|
|Joachim Ernest, Prince of Anhalt||Agnes of Barby-Mühlingen|
|Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst||John George, Elector of Brandenburg|
|Magdalene of Brandenburg||Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt|
|Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt||George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg|
|Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg||Sophia of Hanover||George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg||Éléonore Desmier d'Olbreuse|
|George I of Great Britain||Sophia Dorothea of Celle|
Notes and references
- Lundy, Darryl. "Anne Brudenell". The Peerage.Template:Unreliable source?
- Lundy, Darryl. "Louisa Kerr". The Peerage.Template:Unreliable source?
- Lundy, Darryl. "Charlotte Gordon". The Peerage.Template:Unreliable source?
- Lundy, Darryl. "Caroline Paget". The Peerage.Template:Unreliable source?
- Lundy, Darryl. "Cecilia Gordon-Lennox". The Peerage.Template:Unreliable source?
- "Family Tree Maker's Genealogy Site: Genealogy Report: Descendants of Adam". Familytreemaker.genealogy.com. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- Burke’s Peerage: Queen Elizabeth II Descended from the Prophet Muhammad
- "British Royal Family Genealogy - Page 5". The Royal Forums. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- "Armenia". Fmg.ac. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- "RootsWeb: GEN-MEDIEVAL-L five descent-lines from Mohammed "The Prophet of Islam"". Archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com. 2004-04-08. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- "Tihomir (Tugomir) Khan of the Blue Horde Toq-Timur (Tartars) (c.1250 - 1310) - Genealogy". Geni.com. 2011-08-12. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- Paget, Gerald. "The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales".
- "Mircea III 'the Shepherd' , Voivoide of Valachia". Genealogics.org. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- "RootsWeb: GEN-MEDIEVAL-L Claimed descent from Genghis Khan to modern European royals". Archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com. 1997-12-11. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- NickMGombash (2010-06-25). "Queen Elizabeth II related to Vlad Dracula? | Nick Gombash's Genealogy Blog". Nickmgombash.blogspot.in. Retrieved 2012-08-08.